This guide discusses linkage bias in the Integrated Data Infrastructure (IDI). This is a topic on which there is almost no existing research and many IDI researchers are unfamiliar with linkage error, potential bias, and the extent to which this may impact their findings. This guide is a first step in attempting to increase literacy about linkage bias amongst IDI researchers. The aim of this report is to provide IDI researchers with an introduction to the concepts of linkage error and linkage bias, describe how linkage happens in IDI, and identify some paths to progress research in this important area.

This report was condensed into a short VHIN web guide available here

This work was funded by Healthier Lives National Science Challenge


Citation: Kvalsvig, A., Gibb, S., Teng, A. (2019). Linkage error and linkage bias: a guide for IDI users. University of Otago Wellington. Available from


Download a PDF of the report here: Linkage error and linkage bias IDI user guide