Below is a non-exhaustive list of research articles that have used IDI data. These publications have been compiled as part of work for the VHIN and for Te Rourou Tātaritanga, funded by MBIE Endeavour Grant ref. 62506 ENDRP.

We would love for it to be as complete as possible, so if you have or know of any publications based on IDI data that are not listed here, please email with details.

Publications by year:
2018 and earlier



Barnes L, Eng A, Corbin M, Denison H, ‘t Mannetje A, Haslett S, McLean D, Ellison-Loschmann L, Jackson R, Douwes J (2021). Ischaemic Heart Disease and Occupational Exposures: A longitudinal linkage study in the general and Māori populations of New Zealand. Annals of Work Exposures and Health wxab087, doi:10.1093/annweh/wxab087.

Blakely T, Sigglekow F, Irfan M, Mizdrak A, Dieleman J, Bablani L, Clarke P, Wilson N (2021). Disease-related income and economic productivity loss in New Zealand: A longitudinal analysis of linked individual-level data. PLoS Med 18(11): e1003848, doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003848.

Blankart CR, van Gool K, Papanicolas I, Bernal‐Delgado E, Bowden N, Estupiñán-Romero F, Gauld R, Knight H, Abiona O, Riley K, Schoenfeld AJ, Shatrov K, Wodchis WP, Figueroa JF (2021). International comparison of spending and utilization at the end of life for hip fracture patients. Health Services Research 56(S3): 1370–82, doi:10.1111/1475-6773.13734.

Bouchard I, Cheung L, Pacheco G (2021). Evaluating the impact of 20 hours free early childhood education on mothers’ labour force participation and earnings. New Zealand Economic Papers 55(2): 188–202, doi:10.1080/00779954.2020.1791941.

Cunningham R, Milner A, Gibb S, Rijnberg V, Disney G, Kavanagh A (2021). Gendered experiences of unemployment, suicide and self-harm: A population-level record linkage study. Psychological Medicine 1–9, doi:10.1017/S0033291721000994.

de Roiste M, Fasianos A, Kirkby R, Yao F (2021). Are Housing Wealth Effects Asymmetric in Booms and Busts? J Real Estate Finan Econ 62: 578–628, doi:10.1007/s11146-020-09757-6.

Donovan G, Gatziolis D, ‘t Mannetje A, Weinkove R, Fyfe C, Douwes J (2021). An empirical test of the biodiversity hypothesis: Exposure to plant diversity is associated with a reduced risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Science of the Total Environment 768, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144627.

Figueroa JF, Papanicolas I, Riley K, Abiona O, Arvin M, Atsma F, Bernal-Delgado E, Bowden N, Blankart CR, Deeny S, Estupiñán-Romero F, Gauld R, Haywood P, Janlov N, Knight H, Lorenzoni L, Marino A, Or Z, Penneau A, Shatrov K, van de Galien O, van Gool K, Wodchis W, Jha AK (2021). International comparison of health spending and utilization among people with complex multimorbidity. Health Serv Res 56(S3): 1317–34, doi:10.1111/1475-6773.13708.

Findlay R, Hamm L, Anstice N, Chelimo C, Grant CC, Bowden N, Kokaua J, Black J (2021). Vision screening in New Zealand pre-school children: Is it equitable? Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, doi:10.1111/jpc.15548.

Fraser B, White M, Cook H, Chisholm E, Ombler J, Chun S, Tareha H, Pierse N (2021). Service usage of a cohort of formerly homeless women in Aotearoa New Zealand. SSM Popul Health 15, doi:10.1016/j.ssmph.2021.100842.

Gath ME, Didham RA, Daly M (2021). Estimating the prevalance of children living with a step-parent in New Zealand using linked administrative, census, and survey data. Journal of Family Stuides, doi:10.1080/13229400.2021.1954539.

Gibb S, Brewer N, Bowden N (2021). Social impacts and costs of schizophrenia: A national cohort study using New Zealand linked administrative Data. N Z Med J 134(1537): 66–83,

McLay LK, Schluter PJ, Eggleston MJF, Woodford EC, Bowden N (2021). Melatonin dispensing among New Zealand children aged 0–18 years with autism: A nationwide cross-sectional study. Sleep Medicine 80: 184–192, doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2021.01.028.

Mehta S, Zhao J, Poppe K, Kerr AJ, Wells S, Exeter DJ, Selak V, Grey C, Jackson R (2021). Cardiovascular preventive pharmacotherapy stratified by predicted cardiovascular risk: A national data linkage study. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, doi:10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa168.

Oldroyd RA, Hobbs M, Campbell M, Jenneson V, Morris MA, Pontin F, Sturley C, Tomintz M, Wiki J, Birkin M, Kingham S, Wilson M (2021). Progress Towards Using Linked Population-Based Data For Geohealth Research: Comparisons Of Aotearoa New Zealand And The United Kingdom. Appl. Spatial Analysis, doi:10.1007/s12061-021-09381-8.

Or Z, Shatrov K, Penneau A, Wodchis W, Abiona O, Blankart CR, Bowden N, Bernal-Delgado E, Knight H, Lorenzoni L, Marino A, Papanicolas I, Riley K, Pellet L, Estupiñán-Romero F, van Gool K, Figueroa JF (2021). Within and across country variations in treatment of patients with heart failure and diabetes. Health Serv Res 56(S3): 1358–69, doi:10.1111/1475-6773.13854.

Papanicolas I, Figueroa JF, Schoenfeld AJ, Riley K, Abiona O, Arvin M, Atsma F, Bernal-Delgado E, Bowden N, Blankart CR, Deeny S, Estupiñán-Romero F, Gauld R, Haywood P, Janlov N, Knight H, Lorenzoni L, Marino A, Or Z, Penneau A, Shatrov K, Stafford M, van de Galien O, van Gool K, Wodchis W, Jha AK (2021). Differences in health care spending and utilization among older frail adults in high‐income countries: ICCONIC hip fracture persona. Health Serv Res 56(S3): 1335–46, doi:10.1111/1475-6773.13739.

Papanicolas I, Riley K, Abiona O, Arvin M, Atsma F, Bernal-Delgado E, Bowden N, Blankart CR, Deeny S, Estupiñán-Romero F, Gauld R, Haywood P, Janlov N, Knight H, Lorenzoni L, Marino A, Or Z, Penneau A, Schoenfeld AJ, Shatrov K, Stafford M, van de Galien O, van Gool K, Wodchis W, Jha AK, Figueroa JF (2021). Differences in health outcomes for high‐need high‐cost patients across high‐income countries. Health Serv Res 56(S3): 1347–57, doi:10.1111/1475-6773.13735.

Richmond-Rakerd LS, D’Souza S, Milne BJ, Caspi A, Moffitt TE (2021). Longitudinal associations of mental disorders with physical diseases and mortality among 2.3 million New Zealanders. JAMA Netw Open 4(1): e2033448, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.33448.

Riggs L, Keall M, Howden-Chapman P, Baker MG (2021). Environmental burden of disease from unsafe and substandard housing, New Zealand, 2010–2017. Bull World Health Organ 99: 259–270, doi:10.2471/BLT.20.263285.

Shackleton N, Li E, Gibb S, Kvalsvig A, Baker M, Sporle A, Bentley R, Milne B (2021). The relationship between income poverty and child hospitalisations in New Zealand: Evidence from longitudinal household panel data and Census data. PLOS One 16(1): e0243920, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0243920.

Simon-Kumar R, Paynter J, Chiang A, Chabba N (2021). Sex ratios and ‘missing women’ among Asian minority and migrant populations in Aotearoa/New Zealand: A retrospective cohort analysis. BMJ Open 11(1): e052343, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-052343.

Sin I, Bruce-Brand B, Chambers CNL. The gender wage gap among medical specialists: a quantitative analysis of the hourly pay of publicly employed senior doctors in New Zealand. BMJ Open 11: e045214, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-045214.

Svardal C, Waldie K, Milne B, Morton SMB, D’Souza S (2021). Prevalence of antidepressant use and unmedicated depression in pregnant New Zealand women. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, doi:10.1177/00048674211025699.

Turnbull SM & O’Neale DRJ (2021). Entropy of Co-Enrolment Networks Reveal Disparities in High School STEM Participation. Front. Big Data 3: 599016, doi:10.3389/fdata.2020.599016.

Xiong C, Cheung KS, Filippova O (2021). Understanding the Spatial Effects of Unaffordable Housing Using the Commuting Patterns of Workers in the New Zealand Integrated Data Infrastructure. International Journal of Geo-Information 10(7): 457, doi:10.3390/ijgi10070457.



Barnes LA, Eng A, Corbin M, Denison H, ‘t Mannetje A, Haslett S, McLean D, Jackson R, Douwes J (2020). The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Occupational Groups in New Zealand. Annals of Work Exposures and Health 64(6), doi:10.1093/annweh/wxaa040.

Boven N, Exeter E, Sporle A, Shackleton N (2020). The implications of different ethnicity categorisation methods for understanding outcomes and developing policy in New Zealand. Kōtuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online 15(1): 123–139, doi:10.1080/1177083X.2019.1657912.

Bowden N, Gibb S, Thabrew H, Kokaua J, Audas R, Merry S, Taylor B, Hetrick S (2020). Case identification of mental health and related problems in children and young people using the New Zealand Integrated Data Infrastructure. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 20(42), doi:10.1186/s12911-020-1057-8.

Bowden N, Thabrew H, Kokaua J, Audas R, Milne B, Smiler K, Stace H, Taylor B, Gibb S (2020). Autism Spectrum Disorder / Takiwātanga: An Integrated Data Infrastructure-based approach to autism spectrum research in New Zealand. Autism 24(8): 2213–2227, doi:10.1177/1362361320939329.

Brewer N, Atkinson J, Guilford P, Print P, Blakely T, Teng A (2020). An estimate of limited duration cancer prevalence in New Zealand using ‘big’ data. New Zealand Medical Journal 133(1514),

Charania NA, Paynter J, Lee AC, Watson DG, Turner NM (2020). Vaccine-Preventable Disease-Associated Hospitalisations Among Migrant and Non-migrant Children in New Zealand. J Immigrant Minority Health 22: 223–231, doi:10.1007/s10903-019-00888-4.

Crampton P, Salmond C, Atkinson J (2020). A comparison of the NZDep and New Zealand IMD indexes of socioeconomic deprivation. Kōtuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online 15(1): 154–169, doi:10.1080/1177083X.2019.1676798.

D’Souza S, Bowden N, Gibb S, Shackleton N, Audas R, Hetrick S, Taylor B, Milne B (2020). Medication dispensing for Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder to New Zealand youth. NZMJ 133(1522),

Habibi H & Feld J (2020). The effects of earthquake exposure on preparedness in the short and long term: a difference‑in‑differences estimation. Natural Hazards 104: 1443–1463, doi:10.1007/s11069-020-04227-x1.

Kokaua J, Jensen S, Theodore R, Sorensen D, Jensen W, Audas R, Richards R (2020). Understanding Parental education and health of Pacific families: Background and study protocol. Pacific Health Dialog 21(5): 233–244, doi:10.26635/phd.2020.622.

Leong KSW, McLay J, Derraik JGB, Gibb S, Shackleton N, Taylor RW, Glover M, Audas R, Taylor B, Milne BJ, Cutfield W (2020). Associations of Prenatal and Childhood Antibiotics Exposure with Obesity at Age 4 Years. JAMA Netw Open 3(1), doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.19681.

Petrović-van der Deen FS, Cunningham R, Manuel J, Gibb S, Porter RJ, Pitama S, Crowe M, Crengle S, Lacey C (2020). Exploring indigenous ethnic inequities in first episode psychosis in New Zealand – A national cohort study. Schizophr Res. 223: 311–318, doi:10.1016/j.schres.2020.09.004.

Richmond-Rakerd LS, D’Souza S, Andersen SH, Hogan S, Houts RM, Poulton R, Ramrakha S, Caspi A, Milne BJ, Moffitt TE (2020). Health, crime and social-welfare inequality cluster in a population segment in 4 million citizens from 2 nations. Nat Hum Behav 4: 255–264, doi:10.1038/s41562-019-0810-4.

Slykerman RF, Li E, Milne B (2020). Birth by caesarean section and educational achievement in adolescents. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 61(3), doi:10.1111/ajo.13276.

Walesby KE, Exeter DJ, Gibb S, Wood PC, Starr JM, Russ TC (2020). Prevalence and geographical variation of dementia in New Zealand from 2012 to 2015: Brief report utilising routinely collected data within the Integrated Data Infrastructure. Australasian Journal on Ageing 39(3), doi:10.1111/ajag.12790.

Zhou S & Lennon Olsen T (2020). Is Innovation Uniformly Good for Performance? The Mediating Role of Competitive Capability. Other Innovation Research & Policy eJournal, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3766120.



Bowden N, Gibb S, Thabrew H, Audas R, Camp J, Taylor B, Hetrick S (2019). IDI trends in antidepressant dispensing to New Zealand children and young people between 2007/08 and 2015/16. N Z Med J 132(1505): 48–61,

Choi H (2019). Adjusting for linkage errors to analyse coverage of the administrative population. Statistical Journal of the IAOS 35(2): 253–259, doi:10.3233/SJI-180483.

Donovan GH, Gatziolis D, Douwes J (2019). Relationship between exposure to the natural environment and recovery from hip or knee arthroplasty: A New Zealand retrospective cohort study. BMJ Open 9(9), doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029522.

Donovan GH, Michael YL, Gatziolis D, ‘t Mannetje A, Douwes J (2019). Association between exposure to the natural environment, rurality, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children in New Zealand: A linkage study. The Lancet Planet Health 3, 5, E226–E234, doi:10.1016/S2542-5196(19)30070-1.

Gibb S, Milne B, Shackleton N, Taylor B, Audas R (2019). How universal are universal preschool health checks? An observational study using routine data from New Zealand’s B4 School Check. BMJ Open 9, 4, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025535.

Gibb S, Shackleton N, Audas R, Taylor B, Swinburn B, Zhu T, Taylor R, Derraik J, Cutfield W, Milne B (2019). Child obesity prevalence across communities in New Zealand: 2010-2016. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 43(2), doi:10.1111/1753-6405.12881.

Jiang N, Pacheco G, Dasgupta K (2019). Understanding the transient population: insights from linked administrative data. J Pop Research 36, 111–136, doi:10.1007/s12546-019-09223-y.

Milne BJ, Atkinson J, Blakely T, Day H, Douwes J, Gibb S, Nicolson M, Shackleton N, Sporle A, Teng A (2019). Data Resource Profile: The New Zealand Integrated Data Infrastructure (IDI). Int J Epidemiol 48(3), doi:10.1093/ije/dyz014. A correction has been published: Int J Epidemiol 48(3), doi:10.1093/ije/dyz054.

Nathan K, Robertson O, Atatoa Carr P, Howden-Chapman P, Pierse N (2019). Residential mobility and socioemotional and behavioural difficulties in a preschool population cohort of New Zealand children. J Epidemiol Community Health. 73(10): 947-953, doi:10.1136/jech-2019-212436.

Paynter J, Goodyear-Smith F, Morgan J, Saxton P, Black S, Petousis-Harris H (2019). Effectiveness of a Group B Outer Membrane Vesicle Meningococcal Vaccine in Preventing Hospitalization from Gonorrhea in New Zealand: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Vaccines 7(1): 5, doi:10.3390/vaccines7010005.

Pierse N, Ombler J, White M, Aspinall C, McMinn C, Atatoa-Carr P, Nelson J, Hawkes K, Fraser B, Cook H, Howden-Chapman P (2019). Service usage by a New Zealand Housing First cohort prior to being housed. SSM Popul Health 8:100432, doi:10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100432.

Rapata H, Cutfield WS, Milne BJ, Shackleton N, Waetford C, Richards R, Taylor RW, Derraik JGB, Camp J (2019). Stable prevalence of obesity among Ngāti Whātua 4-year-old children in 2010–2016. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 49(4): 449–458, doi:10.1080/03036758.2019.1691613.

Shackleton N, Derraik J, Audas R, Taylor R, Glover M, Morton S, Tautolo E, Kokaua J, Taylor B, Cutfield W, Milne B (2019). Decomposing ethnic differences in body mass index and obesity rates among New Zealand pre-schoolers. Int J Obesity 43, 1951–1960, doi:10.1038/s41366-019-0390-4.

Teng A, Blakely T, Scott N, Jansen R, Masters-Awatere B, Krebs J, Oetzel J (2019). What protects against pre-diabetes progressing to diabetes? Observational study of integrated health and social data. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 148, 119–129, doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2018.12.003.

Wilson R, Pryymachenko Y, Audas R, Abbott JH (2019). Long-term opioid medication use before and after joint replacement surgery in New Zealand. N Z Med J 132, 1507,

Zhao J, Ameratunga S, Lee A, Browne M, Exeter DJ (2019). Developing a New Index of Rurality for Exploring Variations in Health Outcomes in Auckland and Northland. Soc Indic Res 144, 955–980, doi:10.1007/s11205-019-02076-1.

Zhao J, Gulliver P, Exeter DJ, Lee A, Browne M, Ameratunga S (2019). Unintentional non-fatal hospitalised falls and motor vehicle injuries in the Auckland and Northland regions: Geographical patterns and associations with rurality. New Zealand Geographer 76(1316), doi:10.1111/nzg.12230.


2018 and earlier

Ballantyne A & Style R (2017). Health data research in New Zealand: updating the ethical governance framework. N Z Med J 130(1464): 64–71,

Berry MJ, Foster T, Rowe K, Robertson O, Robson R, Pierse N (2018). Gestational Age, Health, and Educational Outcomes in Adolescents. Paediatrics 142;5:e20181016, doi:10.1542/peds.2018-1016.

Charania NA, Paynter J, Lee AC, Watson DG, Turner NM (2018). Exploring immunisation inequities among migrant and refugee children in New Zealand. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018; 14(12): 3026–3033, doi:10.1080/21645515.2018.1496769.

Davie G & Lilley R (2018). Financial impact of injury in older workers: Use of a national retrospective e-cohort to compare income patterns over 3 years in a universal injury compensation scheme. BMJ Open 2018;8:e018995, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018995.

Donovan GH, Gatziolis D, Longley I, Douwes J (2018). Vegetation diversity protects against childhood asthma: results from a large New Zealand birth cohort. Nature Plants 4, 358–364, doi:10.1038/s41477-018-0151-8.

O’Sullivan L (2015). Linking, selecting cut-offs, and examining quality in the Integrated Data Infrastructure (IDI). Statistical Journal of the IAOS 31(1): 41–49, doi:10.3233/SJI-140859.

Rouland B & Vaithianathan R (2018). Cumulative Prevalence of Maltreatment Among New Zealand Children, 1998–2015. American Journal of Public Health 108: 511–513, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304258.

Schluter PJ, Audas R, Kokaua J, McNeill B, Taylor B, Milne BJ, Gillon G (2018). The efficacy of preschool developmental indicators as a screen for early primary school-based literacy interventions. Child Development 91, 1: e59–e76, doi:10.1111/cdev.13145.

Shackleton N, Broadbent JM, Thornley S, Milne BJ, Crengle S, Exeter DJ (2018). Inequalities in dental caries experience among 4-year-old New Zealand children. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 46(3): 288–296, doi:10.1111/cdoe.12364.

Shackleton N, Darlington-Pollock F, Norman P, Jackson R, Exeter DJ (2018). Longitudinal deprivation trajectories and risk of cardiovascular disease in New Zealand. Health Place 53: 34–42, doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2018.07.010.

Shackleton N, Milne BJ, Audas R, Derraik JGB, Zhu T, Taylor RW, Morton SMB, Glover M, Cutfield WS, Taylor B (2017). Improving rates of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity in New Zealand 4-year-old children in 2010–2016. Pediatric Obesity 13(12): 766–777, doi:10.1111/ijpo.12260.

Schluter PJ, Kokaua J, Tautolo E-S, Richards R, Taleni T, Kim HM, Audas R, McNeill B, Taylor B, Gillon G (2018). Patterns of early primary school-based literacy interventions among Pacific children from a nationwide health screening programme of 4 year olds. Scientific Reports 8: 12368, doi:10.1038/s41598-018-29939-w.

Teng AM, Blakely T, Ivory V, Kingham S, Cameron V (2017). Living in areas with different levels of earthquake damage and association with risk of cardiovascular disease: A cohort-linkage study. The Lancet Planetary Health 1(6): E242–E253, doi:10.1016/S2542-5196(17)30101-8.

Zhao J, Gibb S, Jackson R, Mehta S, Exeter DJ (2018). Constructing whole of population cohorts for health and social research using the New Zealand Integrated Data Infrastructure. Aust N Z J Public Health 42(4): 382–388, doi:10.1111/1753-6405.12781.